Notable drug—drug interactions with the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem include chlorpromazine , fluconazole , imipramine , itraconazole , ketoconazole , rifampicin , and ritonavir. Interactions with carbamazepine and phenytoin can be expected based on their metabolic pathways, but have not yet been studied. There does not appear to be any interaction between zolpidem and cimetidine or ranitidine.
Zolpidem is one of the most common GABA -potentiating sleeping medications prescribed in the Netherlands , with a total of , prescriptions dispensed in The United States Air Force uses zolpidem as one of the hypnotics approved as a " no-go pill " with a 6-hour restriction on subsequent flight operation to help aviators and special duty personnel sleep in support of mission readiness. The other hypnotics used are temazepam and zaleplon. Zolpidem has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".
Chronic users of high doses are more likely to develop physical dependence on the drug, which may cause severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, if abrupt withdrawal from zolpidem occurs. Other drugs, including the benzodiazepines and zopiclone , are also found in high numbers of suspected drugged drivers. Kennedy says that he was using Zolpidem Ambien and Phenergan when caught driving erratically at 3 am. Nonmedical use of zolpidem is increasingly common in the U. Some users have reported decreased anxiety, mild euphoria , perceptual changes, visual distortions, and hallucinations.
For the stated reason of its potential for recreational use and dependence, zolpidem along with the other benzodiazepine-like Z-drugs is a Schedule IV substance under the Controlled Substances Act in the U. The United States patent for zolpidem was held by the French pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Zolpidem has become one of many date rape drugs. Zolpidem received widespread media coverage in Australia after the death of a student who fell 20 m from the Sydney Harbour Bridge while under the influence of zolpidem.
While cases of zolpidem improving aphasia in people with stroke have been described, use for this purpose has unclear benefit. Media related to Zolpidem at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. C Risk not ruled out. S4 Prescription only CA: Retrieved 15 March FDA approves new label changes and dosing for zolpidem products and a recommendation to avoid driving the day after using Ambien CR".
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Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione. Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors Etoperidone Nefazodone Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine , etc. Tetracyclic antidepressants Mianserin Mirtazapine , etc. Typical antipsychotics Chlorpromazine Thioridazine , etc. Atypical antipsychotics Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone , etc. Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine , etc. Agomelatine Melatonin Ramelteon Tasimelteon.
Gabapentin Gabapentin enacarbil Mirogabalin Phenibut Pregabalin. Eszopiclone Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone ; Others: Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are:. Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.
Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes. Some examples of Schedule V drugs are:. Schedule I Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are: Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit Vicodin , cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone Dilaudid , meperidine Demerol , oxycodone OxyContin , fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin Schedule III Schedule III drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence.
Some examples of Schedule III drugs are: Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit Tylenol with codeine , ketamine, anabolic steroids, testosterone Schedule IV Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are: Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien, Tramadol Schedule V Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.
Some examples of Schedule V drugs are: