Far more: Zolpidem overdose death columbus
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There are two interesting facts about this case: Firstly, the patient had not history of suicide attempt or thinking. Secondly, this case had experienced suicide ideation after taking 20 mg of zolpidem, suggesting a possible correlation between zolpidem psychological effects and dangerous psychological behaviors. Zolpidem is an Imidazopyridine agent indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia [ 1 , 2 ]. It has gained popularity as an alternative to benzodiazepine for the treatment of insomnia because of its milder and less problematic side effects [ 3 ].
Nevertheless, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem. Hajak and Babdelow in studied 16, cases of zolpidem use and reported adverse events in 1. The most common reported side effects were nausea, dizziness, malaise, hallucination, nightmares, agitation, and headache [ 4 ]. Although zolpidem appears to be well-tolerated in adults and in the elderly, even when administered in accordance with prescribing instructions [ 5 ], there are case reports of abuse, dependence, withdrawal syndrome and severe and various adverse effects [ 6 - 9 ].
In , Ansseau et al. Some authors [ 6 , 13 , 16 - 19 ] identify 4 factors associated with increased risk of zolpidem-associated psychotic or delirious reactions. One of them is using zolpidem doses of 10 mg or higher. We present a case of individual in whom using 20 mg of zolpidem was associated with suicide ideation. A year-old male, university student, unmarried, dormitory resident with no known mood disorder or neuropsychological disease and abnormal sleep behaviors, had self-referred to a medical toxicologist because of a new experience with zolpidem abuse.
He had no history of health compromising or suicidal behaviors and was free of neuropsychological drugs, except for PRN use of zolpidem 5 to maximum of 15 mg during the last year. In May he declared that he had no dependence to zolpidem. Despite his continuant use for weeks, he strongly believed that he was not and would not be addicted to zolpidem. He applied it as a sleeping drug at first but after a while, he became interested in the pleasant mental experiences of taking zolpidem even more than its sleeping effect alone.
The most important trigger for his continuant abuse of zolpidem, as he said, was his bad emotional status and pressure of thoughts which got severe dramatically at nights. He described his condition by this sentence: Gradually zolpidem could not make him sleep anymore but instead resulted in spending his time doing his favorite things such as listening to music, watching a movie, web surfing or chatting up with friends. The side effects of taking zolpidem, as reported by him were nausea, vomiting, insomnia, nightmares, dizziness and hangover the next day, headache very common , right side abdominal pain the next day, visual hallucination, increased body temperature, talkativeness, greasy hair, lack of control on his speech as telling personal secrets to others, feeling a bitter taste in saliva, change of skin color and the smell of body sweat.
One night, after a rush of annoying thoughts, with a great desire for zolpidem, he took two pills of zolpidem. After a few minutes he noticed the blister of zolpidem by his bed side and saw that 6 of pills are taken, while he was sure that it was a full blister and he had taken just two of them last night. He tried his best to remember exactly that what was happened last night and the only result was suicidal thoughts by zolpidem; After taking 20 mg of Zolpidem at first and beginning the effect of the used zolpidem in a few minutes, he considered taking 4 other pills in order to suicide and did not remember the afterwards.
There are some reports of suicidal attempts by zolpidem, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of zolpidem-induced suicide attempt by zolpidem. Toxicological analyses revealed blood concentration of 4. A study in on 8 postmortem cases, reported 5 cases of deaths following zolpidem intoxication [ 23 ]. In Gock SB et al. It seems the patient attempted suicide when he was under influence of the CNS effects of zolpidem.
Therefore it might be a high risk of attempting suicide when people with no previous decision for suicide, take zolpidem. Because this case is based on one personal statement, additional studies and investigations are needed to refute or confirm this side effect, because zolpidem is a widely used drug in the world and Iran. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication of this report.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We would like to Acknowledge Dr. Ali Tabaeian for his tremendous helps and valuable suggestions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Daru v. We know the struggle, which is why we're uniquely qualified to help. Your call is confidential, and there's no pressure to commit to treatment until you're ready. As a voluntary facility, we're here to help you heal -- on your terms.
Our sole focus is getting you back to the healthy, sober life you deserve, and we are ready and waiting to answer your questions or concerns. Zolpidem is a prescription-grade sedative and hypnotic medication best known by its more recognizable brand name, Ambien. Insomnia is the most common of these conditions, and Ambien works to either help patients fall asleep in the first place or keep them in state of deep, restful slumber. Though very similar to benzodiazepines in regards to intended effects, side effects and usage, Ambien is considered to be a nonbenzodiazepine due to chemical dissimilarities.
Some users have reported engaging in dangerous activities while under the influence of Ambien. Sleepwalking, while potentially harmless in some scenarios, has led to accidental deaths when using the drug. Additionally, cases of sleep-driving have occurred, which increases the threat factor by an enormous amount. The sleep aid disables basic functions while individuals are still awake, too. For all these reasons, it comes as no surprise that physicians highly discourage any Ambien users from operating vehicles or performing normal day-to-day functions after taking the medication.
Beyond the possibility of a sleep-related injury, another consequence of Ambien use is potential overdose. Ambien overdoses can occur when the medicine is used improperly at high doses. Prepare to discover what symptoms of such an overdose would look like, how much Ambien it takes to reach said point, and what can be done to reverse the effects. The medication will be completely gone within the matter of a few hours. Thus, greater dosage quantities are needed in a short amount of time for it to become deadly.
How Many Ambien to Overdose? Alcohol can have a disastrous influence on Ambien. Those with a substance use disorder linked to alcohol are more likely to abuse and develop a dependency on drugs such as Ambien. With dependency comes tolerance. And with tolerance comes more and higher Ambien doses to achieve desired effects — both legally and recreationally speaking.
Medically sanctioned Ambien doses start in the 5—10 mg range. As low as 70 mg can create dangerous complications within the body. Venturing into recreational-use numbers, doses of — mg, will lead to an overdose. The result may not be death at this point, but the side effects will be permanent. Experts place a lethal Ambien amount at approximately 2, mg. Again, disastrous outcomes will occur far before this number is reached.
Still, if 2, mg is the figure in question, and at 10 mg a dose it would take upwards of pills, how is an overdose possible? Truly, it all comes down to how the Ambien is taken. Some unsafe use practices in a recreational setting can intensify the risk, virtually making the dosage amount irrelevant. Chief among these include using Ambien in unintended, not-as-directed ways. Chewing, snorting or injecting the medicine nullifies any intended safeguards.
This already rapid-release drug suddenly enters the bloodstream immediately. Compound this scenario with another likely Ambien use case — mixing the medication with alcohol — and all bets are off.